Ink is an indispensable basic material for packaging and printing, but its production and application are more likely to cause pollution. In the call for the development of low-carbon economy, promote green printing today, the production and use of green ink is increasingly becoming the ink industry and the printing industry consensus.
1, industry authorities, regulatory system and industry policy
(1) industry authorities and regulatory system
Environmentally friendly packaging ink industry's main management department for the National Development and Reform Commission, China Daily Chemical Association ink branch. National Development and Reform Commission is the industry's macro-management department, is mainly responsible for the development of the industry macro-control. China Daily Chemical Association ink branch is the predecessor of China Ink Industry Association, was established in 1985. The association is composed of ink production, ink machinery, ink raw material production and ink related business, scientific research, inspection, teaching units voluntarily composed, is a non-profit social groups, is approved by the State Economic and Trade Commission and the State Ministry of Light Industry and has been in the national civil affairs Ministry of registration of the National Ink Association.
2, industry overview
(1) industry background and development status quo
Ink is an indispensable basic material for packaging and printing, but its production and application are more likely to cause pollution. In the call for the development of low-carbon economy, promote green printing today, the production and use of green ink is increasingly becoming the ink industry and the printing industry consensus. And Europe and the United States, Japan and other developed countries and regions compared to China's production of environmentally friendly ink started late. As the traditional solvent-based ink using a large number of benzene-based solvents, Europe and the United States since 2000, gradually with environmentally friendly ink to replace the traditional ink, Japan also released in 2002 the relevant environmental ink standards, promote environmentally friendly inks in food, And the application of maternal and child supplies packaging. And China from 2005 began to produce environmentally friendly ink, the relevant standards from the beginning of 2007 released.
In recent years, with the steady development of the domestic economy, China's ink industry overall production and sales were gradually increasing trend, and showing the characteristics of environmental protection. According to the Mexican Association of relevant information, China's annual output of ink from 1995 to 10 million tons, the development of 2015 to 697,000 tons, the average annual growth rate remained at 10%.
(2) industry characteristics
The domestic environmental ink industry has the following characteristics:
① relative to foreign environmental ink industry, China's environmental ink industry started late, is currently in the initial stage of development, industry production concentration is low. ② At present, China's relatively small number of environmentally friendly ink products, ink production is not strong environmental protection, and even some products can not meet the relevant standards. In addition, the lack of high-quality ink supply market demand can not be fully met. ③ low level of technology, the domestic environmental ink industry, technological innovation capacity relative to the developed countries in Europe and America is not strong enough, low level of technology, there is greater room for improvement.
3, the industry's market competition
(1) industry competition pattern
At present, China's environmental ink industry is in the initial stage of development, the products are concentrated in the low-end market, many small and medium-sized enterprises, the market is highly competitive; and in the field of high-end product production, the market supply growth is lagging behind demand, production enterprises are relatively small, relatively moderate competition The
At present, the domestic environmental ink industry is mainly composed of multinational enterprise groups, large domestic enterprises and other small and medium enterprises. In 2014, the total sales of environmentally friendly ink, multinational group sales accounted for 47.00%, occupy the largest market share.
According to the China Ink Industry Association statistics, China's total output of 150,000 tons of ink in 2015, of which more than a thousand tons of annual output of more than a dozen, the top ten enterprises combined production of 281,600 tons, accounting for 40.23%. The country in 2015 the main business income of 20 million and above a total of 340 enterprises in the ink, in a complete market competition.
(2) the main obstacles to industry access
① certification barriers
With the end consumer demand for food safety and environmental protection is getting higher and higher, the terminal food packaging production enterprises of its raw materials, especially chemical raw materials, the environmental requirements are getting higher and higher. Therefore, the terminal food packaging manufacturers of ink suppliers to choose and certification will be very cautious, usually need to go through a long time the product trial, and once the certification is generally not frequent replacement. Environmental protection ink industry in the short term may be difficult to obtain end-product manufacturers certification.
② technical barriers
As a technology-intensive industries, environmental ink industry has a high technical barriers, mainly in product formulations, organization of production, market development and so on.
A, environmentally friendly ink product formulation is a comprehensive understanding of the corresponding disciplines, understanding and comprehensive use of the ability to reflect. The environmentally friendly ink formulations include a binder formulation and a pigment formulation. A) The binder material - the binder is a polymer composite material, composed of polymer resin and solvent together, the formula is complex, in the manufacturing process, the need for a comprehensive knowledge of a multidisciplinary and a lot of practical experience. B) Pigment Formulation - In pigment formulations, it is necessary to understand the physical and chemical properties of the various base pigments and to mix them appropriately to process them to form the desired pigments, which require color intermediates chemistry, analytical chemistry and color Degree and other related disciplines of professional knowledge.
B, in the organization of production process, the need for experienced process control engineers, testing engineers, skilled industrial workers to cooperate with each other to ensure the stability of the process and the high quality of the product. Experience and technology, the combination of knowledge is a prerequisite for product production.
C, in the market development link, because the downstream application area is more complicated, even with the same packaging ink, different customers on the application of products and color requirements are not the same. Therefore, companies need to adjust the product formulations according to customer needs, designed for customers spot color products, and in the course of the application of customers continue to provide additional services. Whether the timely provision of special services for enterprises directly determines the technical level of the ink business, but also greatly affect the customer viscosity.
The core technical staff of the technical level and research and development capabilities is able to maintain long-term technological advantages and the market to make rapid response to the protection of the current domestic has not yet set up specialized institutions of higher learning and environmental ink research and development, manufacturing-related professional, corresponding training, education Work is lagging behind, professional talent scarce.
④ financial barriers
With the national environmental protection requirements continue to improve, according to national industrial policy, small batch (with an annual output of 300 tons) ink enterprises were identified as out of class. Under the guidance of the above policies, the ink industry is characterized by synergistic and centralized, and the leading enterprises in the industry can obtain better economic benefits, and the competitive position of small and medium-sized followers and new entrants in the industry is more unfavorable. Step by step to expand the scale of development.
(3) market supply, industry profit levels and trends
China's ink manufacturers in the production of many pyramid structure distribution, the whole industry a higher degree of market-oriented, more intense market competition.
The number of ordinary ink manufacturers, product production process is simple, low-tech, professional lack of integrated services, product prices are relatively low, fierce market competition, low profit margins. Some large-scale ink manufacturers use a large-scale, integrated competitive strategy, by expanding production capacity to reduce the unit cost to small profits and more ways to participate in the relatively low-end ink market competition. Such enterprises are generally larger market share, but the product gross margin is low.
Some high-end ink manufacturers mainly produce high technical requirements of the ink varieties, and can cooperate with the production of downstream enterprises to provide customized services, customer viscosity is higher. Most of these manufacturers use differentiated competitive strategy, to avoid the direct competition with the large-scale ink manufacturers, generally in the market share of a certain, product profit margins larger, some core products in short supply.
4, affecting the development of the industry favorable, unfavorable factors
(1) favorable factors
① national industrial policy support industry development
2009 "Food Safety Law" and "food containers, packaging materials with the use of additives, health standards," the formal implementation of the food packaging materials and containers made clear requirements, the use of environmentally friendly ink to become the only way to environmental printing. With the "on accelerating the development of energy-saving environmental protection industry views", "air pollution control action plan", "urban drainage sewage regulations" and other policies have been released, China's environmental protection ink packaging requirements continue to improve to the national industrial policy-oriented, ink industry Usher in industrial upgrading and new development opportunities, environmentally friendly ink will become the mainstream of the development of the industry projects, the development and introduction of environmentally friendly ink is the advanced technology of the domestic ink industry trends.
② downstream industry environmental protection transformation
With the continuous strengthening of regulatory requirements and the gradual enhancement of environmental awareness, the whole society in the process of environmental protection transformation, the downstream industry and the end consumer demand for environmental protection products gradually increased. Environmental printing is not a short fashion, but an inevitable trend of development, environmentally friendly ink production enterprises face historical opportunities.
③ alternative import space
Environment-friendly ink production process and the formula is more complex, the original domestic printing enterprises rely mainly on overseas procurement, related products, high prices. In recent years, with the domestic enterprises in the environmental ink production technology continues to break through the performance of domestic enterprises related products gradually close to imported products, and the emergence of import substitution trend.
(2) unfavorable factors
China's printing industry chain standardization is low, is not conducive to the industrial chain upstream and downstream industry development. At present, China's printing industry, uneven technical level, weak ability, low degree of standardization of the industrial chain, the development of the situation has been unable to keep up with the pace of market competition. Ink as its upstream supporting industries, for printing enterprises to provide different types of products to adapt to its printing process. The development of the ink industry is limited by the degree of standardization of the industrial chain, leading to product technology improvement and upgrading has been out of the downstream market demand is not conducive to their own industry development.
5, the industry technical level
Environmental ink production formula complex, added value and high technological content, the production process involves chemistry, color science, rheology, analytical chemistry and other disciplines, is a typical technology-intensive fine chemical products. In order to achieve different printing effects and different application areas, environmentally friendly ink products need to ensure that the product combines the flow performance, resistance to resistance, drying performance and adhesion and many other indicators, the enterprise product formulation and production technology requirements of the higher level of technology.
6, the industry's business model, cyclical, seasonal and regional characteristics
(1) ink industry user service features
Printing ink a wide range of different performance, the downstream printing technology companies are not the same, so the ink companies need to take into account the downstream industry's industry, production technology, production environment and other characteristics, for the downstream printing enterprises to provide a complete set of technical solutions, including adjustments Ink products viscosity, formula, drying time and other parameters to ensure that the application of product matching.
(2) cyclical characteristics
Ink is widely used in all areas of the national economy, affected by the economic cycle. In the national economic prosperity cycle, the ink industry production and sales will grow steadily; if the national economic trend fluctuations, the ink industry will be affected.
(3) seasonal features
Environmental ink more used in the food industry, and the food industry by summer and autumn and the impact of increased consumption of holidays, there are seasonal characteristics. Often ink business sales in the third and fourth quarters is higher than the first and second quarter.
(4) regional characteristics
China's food and drug packaging production enterprises are mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Sea region three regions, so the development of environmental protection ink industry, the main focus on the three regions.